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More effective MPA design, implementation, and management can then be achieved by building on success and learning from failure. Currently, there are very few studies demonstrating the direct relationships between participatory governance and improved ecological metrics (Stafford, 2018, but see Di Franco et al., 2016). Rep. 6:38135. doi: 10.1038/srep38135, Edgar, G. J., Stuart-Smith, R. D., Willis, T. J., Kininmonth, S., Baker, S. C., Banks, S., et al. This mismatch may originate from disparities between the scientific principles of MPA design, on the one hand, and practical realities of MPAs, on the other. Copyright © 2018 Giakoumi, McGowan, Mills, Beger, Bustamante, Charles, Christie, Fox, Garcia-Borboroglu, Gelcich, Guidetti, Mackelworth, Maina, McCook, Micheli, Morgan, Mumby, Reyes, White, Grorud-Colvert and Possingham. Sci. Marine protected areas as biological successes and social failures in Southeast Asia. Marine protected areas in the eastern African Region: how successful are they? Recently, there has been a shift from the individual leader at the top, to the process of leadership, which can occur throughout an organization and is not restricted to one person or group with a formal role (Schultz and Fazey, 2009). Comparative studies across marine regions have enabled us to explore common factors contributing to MPA success (e.g., Charles and Wilson, 2009; Edgar et al., 2014). Marine protected areas (MPAs) offer a range of benefits for fisheries, people and the marine environment. doi: 10.1038/nature13022, Ferraro, P. J., and Hanauer, M. M. (2014). Monitoring of protected areas in the Arctic is pretty much in its infancy. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. Front. Looking to the future, we have two major recommendations. Conversely, while some factors were identified as critical for success, their absence was not considered a driver of failure, and vice versa. They work by providing safe havens for depleted fish stocks to recover. Here, we focus on success or failure in achieving ecological outcomes, because evidence is more abundant for assessing ecological rather than other objectives (Gill et al., 2017). They also provide services to local communities who depend on the sea and its resources, increasing food security and reducing poverty. Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC and IUCN. (2014). Source: 5 Facts About Successful Marine Protected Areas | Sport Diver, Posted Saturday, 31 October 2015 by Culebra Snorkeling and Dive Center in Culebra Beaches, Culebra Posts & Reviews, Culebra Snorkeling, Tagged with Caribbean Snorkeling, Culebra Beach, Culebra Boating, Culebra Kayaking, Culebra Puerto Rico, Culebra Snorkeling, Diving Tip, Flamenco Beach, Underwater photography. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2011.00207.x, Gao, S. S., and Zhang, J. J. We also thank Polita Glynn for assisting in the workshop organization. There’s a great deal of difference between just establishing a protected area and monitoring it to find out whether the protection has been successful. The science of marine protected areas (3rd Edition, Mediterranean). Social and ecological effectiveness of large marine protected areas. Sci. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are one policy instrument available that have the potential to address several of the pressures on marine biodiversity (Table 2), in particular over-fishing and exploitation and habitat destruction. Figure 1. Mar. Marine Protected Area Success. Environ. 26, 29–38. Despite some differences between CPRs and MPAs the obstacles are similar, and solutions can be sought by applying the model of CPR theory … 22. The unique context of Hawaii's fish replenishment areas. 11, 75–82. Interestingly, whereas some factors were identified as critical for success, their absence was not identified as a driver of failure (Table S1.3). Sci. 5, 1–10. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are institutional arrangements developed to manage coastal natural resources with the objective to restrict human activity and to achieve long-term conservation of the ecosystem (Feuerstein, 2014). Thus, our assessments of ecological success, while considering available published evidence, reflect our perspectives based on first-hand experience and expert knowledge (Table S1.2). More specifically, based on our collective experience, we suggest the development of protocols for the assessment of the following factors: Stakeholder engagement is a dynamic process that needs to be dialogue-based and include feedback mechanisms that allow stakeholders to assess their engagement. 4 examples of successful Marine Protected Areas © PJ Stephenson / WWF In Mozambique, where about 40% of the population lives on the coast, Quirimbas National Park has established fish sanctuaries to protect spawning grounds and restore fish populations. In our exercise, we defined success and failure in terms of achieving ecological outcomes, but we recognize that there are a range of possible objectives that can be assessed (e.g., improvements in wellbeing). (2006). 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